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Economics of Education Review, vol. 96, October 2023.
Working paper version: IFAU Working paper 2023:9.
The demography of Sweden's transgender population – patterns, changes, and sociodemographics. Stockholm Research Reports in Demography No. 2023:22. Co-authored with Martin Kolk*, Emma von Essen, Ylva Moberg, and Ian Burn. * denotes the lead author. Also available as an SSRN pre-print.
Abstract: Our study examines the prevalence of gender transitions in Sweden over time and documents the sociodemographic characteristics of people transitioning in different periods. We use national administrative data covering the transgender population from 1973 to 2020 and analyze two common events in a gender transition: the earliest diagnosis of gender incongruence and the change of legal gender. We have three main findings. First, the measured prevalence of both types of events is relatively low in all periods, although it has increased substantially since the early 2010s. Second, the recent increase in transition prevalence is most pronounced among people in early adulthood; in particular, young transgender men drive an increase in overall transition rates through 2018, followed by moderate declines in 2019 and 2020. Third, transgender men and women have substantially lower socioeconomic outcomes than cisgender men and women, regardless of the age at which they transition or the historical period.
The effect of higher-stakes grades on student achievement. Currently under revision. Revised version expected in autumn term 2023. Media coverage in Swedish: Skolporten. Sveriges Radio P4 Uppland. Uppsala University.
Abstract: Educational interventions that increase the quality or quantity of school resources may have a limited impact on student achievement if students lack sufficient effort or motivation. A more effective way of raising achievement could be incentivizing students to perform well in school. In this paper, I study whether students respond to non-financial incentives for higher grades, exploiting a reform in Stockholm that made compulsory school grades the sole criteria for admission to high school. Using a difference-in-differences design, I find that the reform increased students’ grade point average in compulsory school by 10% of a standard deviation on average. Estimates of the unconditional quantile treatment effects show that the largest shifts occurred just above the middle of the grade distribution, where the performance incentives were strongest. I perform a variety of checks to support the hypothesis that these effects were driven by changes in student effort rather than changes in school grading practices. My findings suggest that behavioral responses from students drive the results. Thus, strengthening the performance incentives implicit in the design of the education system can have a positive effect on student achievement.
Degree selectivity and teachers' initial job placements. Currently under revision. Revised version expected in autumn term 2023. To access the current version, click here and go to chapter 3 of the manuscript.
Abstract: Teachers with stronger academic credentials tend to work in schools with students from more advantaged backgrounds. This paper contributes to an emerging literature on the mechanisms that drive these sorting patterns. With register data covering all college graduates and teachers in Chile between 2007 and 2020, I examine whether earning a more selective teaching degree has a causal effect on the type of schools where graduates teach at the start of their career. For identification, I exploit a college placement mechanism that generates hundreds of admission cutoffs around which access to more selective teaching programs is essentially random. Using the variation around these cutoffs in a regression discontinuity design, I find suggestive evidence that graduating from a more selective teacher program has an effect on teachers' initial job placements. In particular, it increases the probability of working in more urbanized areas and in publicly-subsidized private schools.
SELECTED WORK IN PROGRESS
School and parental responses to changes in student performance: evidence from school entry rules
(with Peter Fredriksson and Björn Öckert)
Peer gender composition and student outcomes in high school and beyond
(with Aino-Maija Aalto)
Using national administrative data for social science research on gender transitions: Lessons from Sweden
(with Ian Burn, Emma von Essen, and Ylva Moberg)
Impacts of abolishing the sterilization requirement for legal gender change
(with Ylva Moberg, Rinni Norlinder, and Emma von Essen)
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